Categories
Research Structure

Significance of the Study

The lecture notes is on to how to write the significance of the study. This section often referred to as the “rationale” or justification is one in which you try to convince your audience that the study is worth doing. As you write the significance, there is the need to figure out several contributions and benefits of your study, especially, why you are undertaking the study.

Learning outcomes

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

  1. state the general contributions of the study
  2. state the specific contributions of the study
  3. give grounds for the study
  4. explain with logical reasons the benefits of the study
Techniques for writing significance of the study

General significance

To write the general significance, consider the importance or contribution your study will impact or benefit others in part or whole. Discuss what people or groups of people might benefit from your study. Show how this project is significant to developing a body of knowledge. An example is how your study will influence public policy.

Specific significance

Your problem statement can guide you in identifying the specific contribution of your study. You can do this by observing a one-to-one correspondence between the purpose of the problem and the objectives of the study. For example, if your research question reads “Is there any significant relationship between the usage of WhatsApp and the performance of students in spelling in English language?” perhaps, you may write one of the contributions of your study as “The study will identify common errors in spelling and grammar by users of WhatsApp and recommend its appropriate use in a manner that can improve better performance in spelling.”

Gaps in literature

Justify the need for the study by considering the following:

  1. The gaps in related literature that demands attention
  2. Where there is little or no literature on the identified gaps
  3. Where the related literature available recommends a further work vis-à-vis the identified gaps
Benefits or outcomes

You may justify the need for the study by outlining the expected benefits or outcomes to be derived from conducting the study. You need to explain how the outcome of the study will be useful in terms of how it will contribute to extension, refinement or revision of a theory; or influence existing issues in terms of policy or practice.

Checklists

Use the following checklists to fine tune the significance of the study:

  1. Why is this work important?
  2. What are the implications of doing it?
  3. How does your study link to other knowledge?
  4. How does it stand to inform or influence policy making?
  5. What new perspective will your study introduce to the subject?
  6. What benefits might your study have for others in the subject area or to the general public?
  7. How is your study expected to resolve lingering questions or gaps in knowledge in your field of study?
  8. How is your study expected to develop better theoretical models in your specialty?
  9. How your study will change the way people do their jobs in a particular field, or may change the way people live. 

 

Example  

wp-1509303598043..jpgFig 1: Sample of significance of the study

Bibliography

Amedahe, F. K. (n.d.). Introduction to educational research. Cape Coast: Centre for Continuing Education, University of Cape Coast

Kutsanedzie, F., Achio, S., & Ameko, E. (2015). Comprehensive approach to research writing and publication. (1st ed.) New York:.Science Publishing Group. ISBN: 978-1-940366-51-7

Mahama, A. (2014). Guidelines for writing undergraduate research report. Accra: Islamic University College, Ghana.

Regoniel, P. A. (February 9, 2015). Two tips on how to write the significance of the study. Retrieved October 1. 2017 from http://simplyeducate.me/2015/02/09/two-tips-on-how-to-write-the-significance-of-the-study/

Thesisnotes. (September 19, 2016). Writing thesis significance of the   study. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from http://thesisnotes.com/thesis-writing/writing-thesis-significance-of-the-study/

Categories
Research Structure

Background to the Study

The Background to the Study is the first essential component of Chapter One of your research project. It introduces the background to the study in order to situate the study in its proper perspective and context. It indicates the root of the problem being studied, presents appropriate context of the problem in relation to theory, research, and the extent to which previous studies have successfully investigated the problem, and where gaps exist that your study may attempt to address. In a nutshell, the background to your research project must include a detailed information in which you (a) explain what previous studies state about your topic, (b) discuss current developments surrounding your topic, and (c) identify the gap in literature that leads to your study. As you write the background statement, think through the learning outcomes:

 Learning Outcomes

By the time you complete this tutorial, you should be able to:

  1. state the general information on the background
  2. state the specific information on the background
  3. identify gaps in the study
  4. raise appropriate questions about the identified gaps
  5. provide scientific answers to the questions raised about identified gaps
  6. cite appropriately all sources and acknowledge them accordingly
The General Information on the Background

This part of the background focuses on the general scope of the study. It takes into account information that has general association with the topic under study. For instance, if it has to do with managing conflicts in the tourism sector, the general information can look at the general definition of conflicts; its effect on performance of workers in the hospitality industry and how it compares with the other known conflict management techniques; its disadvantages and the benefits derived from processes in managing conflict.

With this arrangement, you would be able to present a general idea on the topic and more importantly arrange your write-up in a logical format.

Example 1

If the research statement is about a new Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) technology that can reduce the financial burden and the inconvenience of learners (workers) who combine studies with work, and also cover large distances in order to access instructions, then begin with statements about the overall importance of CAI. Discuss the educational, financial and societal implications for learners who cannot access instructions because of their proximity, job and family engagements. Talk about general goals that can improve online learning. Finally, describe how the particular subject of your research statement relates to those national or institutional needs (Mahama, 2013).

Example 2

Similarly, if you are writing a proposal on a study that will reduce congestion on urban streets, describe the extent of the problem. How much time is lost due to congestion at national level? How much does it affect air quality? How does your particular problem contribute to the solution? If your research statement describes a method or practice that will improve efficiencies in procedures in your focus area, how much time and resources are wasted by current practices.

Another example of general information on background by Soyebo and Omokayode (2016) is presented in Figure 1.

backgrd1.JPG

Figure. 1: Sample of background of study Source: http://ijhass.org/index.php/ijhass/article/view/23/26

The Specific Information on the Background

The specific information on the background narrows the information and brings the chosen topic to focus by considering issues that precisely relate the topic. It forms the basis of the study. For instance,

  • If the topic is on implementing Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) as an instructional delivery media for online learning, you must concentrate on the strength and weaknesses of CAI as an online instructional delivery media vis-à-vis the other known instructional delivery media. You should as well highlight other known media of instructions on which the implementation can be based.
  • If the topic is on appraisal of composting as a waste management technique, you must concentrate on the strength and weaknesses of the composting as a waste management techniques vis-à-vis the other known waste management techniques. You must also highlight the other known methods of assessment that the appraisal can be based on (Fig. 2)
Pyrolysis, also referred to as thermolysis, gasification, cracking is a thermochemical decomposition of waste (organic and inorganic) to generate useful products such as gas, biofuel, char or activated carbon which can be used as raw materials to propel industrial growth. This waste management method is conspicuously missing as waste management technique in Ghana. This may be due to the lack of the technical expertise in the area or the facilities. That notwithstanding, pyrolysis offers the opportunity for the management of both organic and inorganic waste for energy generation and provision of other useful raw materials for industries.

Figure 2: Sample specific information on background. Source: Kutsanedzie, et al. (2015)

Identification of Gaps in the Background Information

This is the basis of the study which advances an argument for a scientific or intellectual discourse (Kutsanedzie, et al., 2015). It is best practice to identify a problem before finding a solution to it and not vice-versa. In this section, you point out the gaps available in the presented information captured in the specific information background. For instance, as regard the topic on composting stated earlier, though it is regarded as the most environmentally friendly organic waste management method and its product are beneficial for enriching the soil as an organic fertilizer. And when used immaturely, it can serve an entry of zoonotic and pathogenic microbes into the food chain to pose health hazards and threats to the public. This identified gap can stimulate the debate for the study (Figure 3).

Organic waste such as the coconut cannot easily be degraded via composting into organic fertilizer and biogas technology for gas generation. In terms of inorganic waste, plastics for packaging of water, food and gifts are predominant, and these cannot be managed by both aerobic and anaerobic digestion. According to Mohana et al. (2012) waste plastics also do not biodegrade in landfills and therefore are not easily recycled. For effective management of the country‘s waste challenges, a suitable waste management technique such as pyrolysis must be studied for its feasibility and effectiveness of being used for the management coconut fruit waste and plastic waste types for energy generation and industrial raw materials production for wealth creation.

Figure 3: Sample gap of the study. Source: Kutsanedzie, et al. (2015)

Raising Appropriate Questions on Identified Gaps

Once you have identified a gap in the study, it is now mandatory on you to raise all the necessary questions. The answers to these questions then become solutions for bridging the identified gaps. For example, (a) how can the survived zoonotic and pathogenic microbes be eliminated in the final compost, (b) what composting method can be used to achieve pathogenic-free compost, (c) how can teaching and learning be achieved by non residential learners, and (d) what instructional delivery media can be provided for online learners?

Providing Answers to Questions on Identified Gaps

This is where you propose interim answers to the raised questions although the study is yet to be undertaken. This is referred to as the project statement. For the questions raised in our example, the study statement can be framed as ― (a) there is a method of composting that can be used to achieve pathogenic-free compost, or (b) a much more efficient instructional delivery media can be developed to enhance online teaching and learning.

Bibliography

Kutsanedzie, F., Achio, S., & Ameko, E. (2015). Comprehensive approach to research writing and publication (1st ed.). New York: Science Publishing Group. ISBN: 978-1-940366-51-7

Mahama, A. (2013). Developing a sustainable computer-assisted instruction program for online learning (unpublished doctoral thesis). Honolulu: Atlantic International University

Mahama, A. (2015). ICT usage: The case of Junior High students, Ablekuma, Ghana. Deutschland, Germany: Scholars’ Press. ISBN: 978-3-639-76854-1. Also accessible at https://www.amazon.co.uk/ICT-Usage-Students-Ablekuma-District/dp/363976854X/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1510851438&sr=1-1

Soyebo, K. O., & Omokayode, H. A. (2016). IUG Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(1), p. 1. ISSN: 2579 0390. Retrieved November 1, 2017 from http://ijhass.org/index.php/ijhass/article/view/23/26

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Writing a research statement. Retrieved October 21, 2017 from http://www.trb.org/ResearchFunding/AppendixAWritingaResearchStatement.aspx

Zepernick, J. (2015). Ten tips for writing an effective introduction in a research paper. Think Science. Retrieved October 20, 2017 from https://thinkscience.co.jp/en/downloads/Ten%20Tips%20for%20Writing%20an%20Effective%20Introduction%20to%20Original%20Research%20Papers.pdf


Categories
Research Structure

Crafting a Research Topic

The lecture notes is a summary on how to craft a workable research topic.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this instruction, you should be able to:

    • Craft a workable research topic
    • Develop research objectives for the research topic
    • Formulate research questions from the research objectives

The attributes of a feasible research topic can be outlined as:

Relevance of Your Topic
    • Does the research topic match your career goals? Do you have personal interest in the topic, such that it can be sustained f
      or the research duration?
    • Is the topic relevant to your life and something with which you are really fascinated?
    • Will your proposed research be able to provide fresh insights in this topic?
    • Are you able to state your research objectives and questions clearly?
    • Is the research topic achievable within the available time and financial resources?
Basic Background Checks on Your Topic
    • Choose a topic on which you can find material (sufficient details). For example, are you reasonably certain of being able to gain access to data you likely require for this topic?
    • Are there any previous works on your topic?
    • Does your topic contain issues that have a clear link to any theory?
    • Use search engines to search for keywords and central ideas on your topic.
    • Create a bibliography of all sources you consult.
Defining the Scope of Your Topic

a.  Is it too broad or too general? Else, you can be assured of overwhelming amount of details (data) to focus on? Is it too narrow, too specific? Else, you may have very little data or information to work with

b.  You might refocus your topic from general to specific topic and vice versa by adding or eliminating the following points:

    • Craft a workable research topic
    • Time period – year, century, era, future, etc.
    • Population – male, female, nationality, age, etc.
    • Location – country, region, environmental, etc.
    • Characteristics – social, cultural, biographical, etc.
Bibliography

Kutsanedzie, F., Achio, S., & Ameko, E. (2015). Comprehensive approach to research writing and publication (1st ed.). New York: Science Publishing Group. ISBN: 978-1-940366-51-7.

Mahama, A. (2014). Guidelines for writing undergraduate research report (unpublished) .Accra: Islamic University College, Ghana.

Thesisnotes. (September 19, 2016). Writing thesis significance of the study. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from http://thesisnotes.com/thesis-writing/writing-thesis-significance-of-the-study/

Thesisnotes. (February 23, 2014). Statement of the problem. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from http://thesisnotes.com/category/statement-of-the-problem

 

Categories
Research Structure

Format of a Research Report

Under Construction

The post is a summary on report writing format of a research project based to a great extent on American Psychological Association (APA) styles. Generally, the presentation focuses on the structure and formatting attributes of the Front Matter and the Opening Chapter of a research report. The structure of a research report can be summarised under three categories, namely:

  • the Front Matter,
  • the Main Body of the Report, and
  • the Back Matter (References, Bibliographies and Appendices).

The Front Matter

The Front Matter begins with the Cover Page, the Spine through the List of Figures.

The Cover Page

The Cover Page of a research report has four blocks as illustrated in Figure 1:

  • The first block of this page is the institution of affiliation. It must be printed at the top of the page, i.e., 12 single spaces or 2 inches from the top edge of the page
  • the TITLE of the report must be printed in the middle of the page
  • the author’s FULL NAME
  • the YEAR of presenting the research work must be printed at the bottom half of the page. Note that the use of ‘BY’ and titles such as Mr., Mrs., Rev., Alhaji, etc. are not acceptable. The text of the four blocks are presented in upper cases

Figure 1: Sample of a cover page

To download the sample cover page click onCover Page

Spine

The Spine is presented in Figure 2 and is printed in three blocks. All writings must be in upper cases.

    • the degree
    • the full name of the candidate
    • the year the research project is being presentated.

Figure 2: The Spine

Title Page

The Title Page consists of five blocks and is presented in upper case.
  • The name of institution is the first block. It is set at five single spaces (1.27 cm) from the top edge of the page and centred between the left and right margins.
  • The title of the report follows.
  • The full name of the candidate is set in the third block.
  • The department and the faculty of the university to which the research work is submitted and the purpose for which the work is required are captured in the fourth block
  • The fifth block states the date (month and year) that the work is presented (Figure 3)

Figure 3: The title page

To download the sample title page click onTitle Page

 

Declaration

The declaration page is where you’re required to simply reaffirm the originality of your research project free of plagiarism. A sample declaration is presented in Figure 4. Figure 4: Declaration for a research project

To download the sample declaration click on Declaration

 

Abstract

The abstract is a summary of the entire paper and should include only materials that are part of the research report. It should not consist of (a) more than 250 words, (b) symbols, and (c) many technical terms. It is written in the past tense and numbered (ii) after the title page at bottom of the page (footer). Present your abstract in a single paragraph. A typical abstract (Figure 5) comprises (a) the reason why the research was done, (b) what was investigated, (c) who the participants were, (d) how the study was conducted, and (e) at least one major key finding, conclusion, and recommendation Figure 5: An abstract sample

To download the sample abstract click onAbstract

Acknowledgements

You acknowledge all contributions towards the completion of the project. It is numbered (iii) at bottom of the page (footer). It is not another dedication page. It should therefore contain at most two lines, consisting of just a few words. It is highly unconventional to acknowledge God, Allah or any other supernatural powers in documents of this nature. Example

In Memory of My Parents

Table of Contents

Table of contents should list abstract, acknowledgements, dedication, list of tables and list of figures, the chapter headings into which the paper is divided, the main headings and sub-divisions. The heading TABLE OF CONTENTS is typed on the tenth single space below the top of the paper and it is centred between the margins. The words “Chapter” and “Page” head their respective columns. Two spaces are recommended for all indentations in the Table of Contents (Figure 6). Figure 6: Table of contents  

List of Tables

After the Table of Contents, the next separate section typed on a new page is the List of Tables. The heading LIST OF TABLES is placed on the tenth single line from the top margin of the paper.

List of Figures

The next separated page or pages in the Preliminaries or Front Matter is the List of Figures. The setting is the same as LIST OF TABLES.

General Formatting

Present introductory statements (without placing it under the heading “Introduction”) at the beginning of chapter two through chapter five to explain how each chapter is organised. Indentation All paragraphs are indented at 5 to 7 spaces (1.27 cm) from the left margin (first column). Margins Set the top, bottom and right margins to 1 inch (2.54 cm). Thus, the margins start from the edge of the paper and extend 2.54 cm both sides. The left margin is set to 2 inches (5.04 cm) in order to allow for binding. An alternative is to set all margins including gutter to 1 inch (2.54 cm). Paper Size The preferred paper size is A4 with a measurement of 21 cm by 29.7 cm (8.5 inches by 11 inches). Font The preferred font is Times New Roman typeface, 12 point type size and regular type style. Text Alignment The body text is aligned to both left and right margins (justify). Pagination All pages of the main document (body and back matters) are assigned Arabic (1, 2, etc.) numerals. The numbers are placed at the footer and aligned centre. It continues through references and appendices. Use Roman (i, ii, etc.) numerals for the front matter. Spacing The main document including reference should be composed on double spacing. Where captions extend beyond one line, it is typed on single spacing. A chapter heading (e.g. Chapter One) starts on the third single spacing from the edge of the top margin. A chapter title such as “Introduction” is typed on the second single spacing after the chapter heading. Example of a typical first page of the main body of a research project is illustrated in Figure 7. The abstract, acknowledgements and dedication headings are set off as follows:

  • they are typed on the tenth single space from the top of the page in upper case and centred between the margins.
  • the first line of the text begins on the third single space below the heading and six single spaces (1.27 cm) from the left margin.

Figure 7: Sample of Chapter One

To download Chapter One sample click on Chapter One

 

Table

In presenting a table, note that (a) the table has no gridlines except the two horizontal lines for the top and bottom parts of the table; (b) the title is placed at the top of the table, presented in title case, aligned left with bold effect; and (c) the entries are presented in double spacing (Table 1). The caption for a figure is presented below the figure and written in title case (Figure 8). Use Arabic numerals to number tables and figures consecutively throughout the text. Figure 8: A sample formatted table


Table2

This table is not different from Figure 8 except that the pair of horizontal gridlines are set for total at the bottom part of the table.  

To download sample of Table2 click onTable2

Figure

Figure 9: A sample figure  

Referencing

Most reference styles introduce in-text citations in the body text and reference lists at the end of the report. For the reference list, use (a) hanging indentation for each reference list, (b) sentence case for the title of a non-periodic and title case for the article of a journal, and (c) double spacing (Figure 10). Figure 10: A sample of reference list

To download the sample reference list click onReferences      
Categories
Research Structure

Referencing Styles

In scholarly writing, it is both a moral & legal requirement to properly acknowledge someone else’s ideas or words you have used in your research project. Failure to acknowledge your source of information, you may be accused of plagiarism and infringing copyright.

The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing styles is a widely used standardized style in scholarly writing to acknowledge the source of information used in research. By referencing properly, it demonstrates your scholarly honesty in having undertaken research on your topic and having located relevant information.

The Two Parts of APA Referencing Styles

There are two main parts to APA Referencing (Universal College of Learning [UCOL], 2017) :

  • This part is often referred to as citing in text, in text citations or text citations. It is the source of information you have used to write your project where you demonstrate support for your ideas, arguments and views.
  • The second part to referencing is the construction of a reference list. It shows the complete details of whatever you cited. It appears in an alphabetical order at the end of your research report with a hanging indentation.

Types of Citations

  • If citations are in brackets they are referred to as parenthetical. An example is given as: (Mahama, 2019). One straightforward rule by APA manual (2010, p. 174) states: “Do include the year in all parenthetical citations.” This means that the year of the pubnlication should be included in all citations that are in brackets. This applies irrespective of the style (part of the narrative, or parenthetical) of the first citation.
  • If a citation is part of the narrative, then it’ll look like: According to Mahama (2019)…. There are two rules for this style of citing. If the first citation is part of the narrative, do not include the year in subsequent references that are in the narrative (APA, 2010).

Example

According to Mahama (2019) ……
In subsequent citation s within the same paragraph, the citation now reads as:
Mahama suggested that ….

 

Short Quotation

This quotation, otherwise known as direct quotation refers to materials you quote that are less than 40 words. One common practice for short quotation is to place the author and year before the quotation. The page appears at the end of the quotation. Place the words in double quotes.

Example

According to Mahama (2011), “the general feeling on the focus of integration of ICT into Junior High School education is more in the formal school arrangement” (p. 35).

 

Long Quotation

When the quote is at least 40 words, it is considered long quotation. It is indented 5 to 7 spaces (1.27 cm) and set at double spacing. The words are not placed in quotes.

Example

Mahama (2011) stated in his findings that the general feeling on the focus of integration of ICT into junior high school education is more in the formal school arrangement. The study identified the Internet cafés as the most significant location that influenced usage of the internet among JHS students. (p. 35)

 

Citing One Author

Mahama (2011) stated in his findings that the general feeling on the focus of integration of ICT into junior high school education …

 

Citing Two Authors

According to Annan and Mahama (2000), there are difficulties involved in descriptive survey …

Earlier studies had shown that there are difficulties involved in descriptive survey (Anan & Mahama, 2000).

 

More than Two Authors

When three to five authors are involved, you cite in your first citation all their surnames followed by year of publication. In subsequent citations, you cite only the surname of the first author followed by the Latin word “et al.” But when the subsequent citations are within the same paragraph, you omit the year for all the citations. When more than five authors are to be cited, use surname of the first author followed by “et al.” in both the first and subsequent citations. Do not italicise et al. in any citations.

Example

The available research on students’ use of ICT … traditional educational system (Mioduser, Nachmias, Lahav & Oren, 1998).

 

Subsequent citation reads as:

Previous studies (Mioduser et al., 1998) on Internet use showed that …

 

Organisation as Author

When organisations are presented as authors in a publication, the full expression other than the initials of the body is cited. In subsequent citations, only the initials are used.

Example

In furtherance with the new ICT curriculum, all students … (Ministry of Education [MOE], 2009).

 

Subsequent citation reads as

The MOE (2009) …

 

Two or More Works within the Same Parentheses

When you cite works of two or more sources within the same parentheses, sort the surnames of the authors alphabetically and separate the citations with semicolon (s).

Example

… about the phenomenon studied (Best & Kahn, 1993; Gay, 1990).

 

An Author with Several Works with Same Date

When you cite several works by the same author with the same year of publication, you must introduce the letters a, b, c, etc. after the year of publication.

Example

Adam authored the three books in 2010, (a) ABC of Excel, (b) Data Analysis, and (c) ABC of Database. The in-text citation, after sorting the titles alphabetically is presented as:

A lot of studies have been undertaken on data collection instrument (Adam, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c).

 

A Secondary Source

We want to assume that you read the book of Amedahe he published in 2002 where he referenced previous studies undertaken by Glass and Hopkins on descriptive statistics. Amedahe’s material is what you are privy to and therefore becomes the secondary source.

Example

The in-text citation of the given source is presented as:

According to Glass and Hopkins (as cited by Amedahe, 2002), descriptive statistics …

 

The citation then appears in the reference list entry as:

Amedahe, F. K. (2002). Fundamentals of educational research methods, mimeograph. Cape Coast: University of Cape Coast.

Reference List

For the reference list, use (a) hanging indentation for each reference list, (b) sentence case for the title of a non-periodic and title case for the article of a journal, and (c) double spacing (Figure 9).

Reference List

Mahama, A. (2011). In search of truth. Ghanaian   Psychologist, 48, 574-576.

Amedahe, F. K. (2002). Fundamentals of educational research methods, mimeograph. Cape Coast: University of Cape Coast.

Figure 10: A sample of reference list

 

To download sample of an indented reference list click

 

Periodicals (journal with one author)

Mahama, A. (2011). In search of truth. Ghanaian Psychologist, 48, 574-576.

 

Journal Article (with two authors)

Hussein, R., & Abu, S. (2009). The life of the companions. Islamic Perspective, 45, 100-136.

 

Non-Periodical (books)

Mahama, A., (1997). The Muslim family life. Ghana: The Call Consult.

 

Note: If the publication has no city of publication, then use the country as shown in the given example.

 

Book with Edition

Bowling, A. (2002). Research methods in health – investigating health and health services (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press.

 

Book with Editor

Boadie, J. (Ed.). (2009). The Internet in everyday life. Accra: Islamic University College, Ghana.

 

Daily Newspaper Article (with an author)

Wireko, V. (2011, December 14). Have we not done enough harm to our best talents? Daily Graphic, (No. 18716), p.7.

 

Daily Newspaper Article (no author identified)

In the reference of this type of article, you mention only the title of the article if no author is identified and italicize the newspaper name.

Example

Private schools urged to run SSS courses. (1999, August 14). Daily Graphic, (No. 14769), pp. 1, 3.

 

Encyclopaedia or Dictionary

When dealing works with a large editorial board, you list the name of the lead editor, followed by et al.

Example

Venes, D.(Ed.), et al. (2001). Taber’s cyclopaedic medical dictionary (19th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

 

Online Dictionary Sources

When you cite an online dictionary do the following: (a) Italicize the source of the cited word after In, (b) Insert the date the dictionary was published, or revised. In case the date is not so obvious use the copyright date, (c) Provide the full uniform resource locator (URL) and the date the material was retrieved.

Example

Plagiarize.(2008). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved December 8, 2011, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarize

 

Internet Articles Based on a Print Source

Use the same basic primary journal reference for online articles retrieved. If the article is viewed only in its electronic form, introduce square brackets [ ] after the article.

Example

Mangesi, K. (2007). ICT in education in Ghana, survey of ICT education in Africa: Ghana country report. [electronic version]. The World Factbook. April 2007. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.infodev.org/ict4edu-Africa

 

Article in an Internet-Only Journal

Newmarch, E., Taylor-Steele, S., & Cumpston, A. (2000). Women in IT – What are the barriers? Network of women in further education conference. Retrieved January 12, 2011, from http://www.dest.gov.au/archive/ research/docs/womenin_it

References

Universal College of Learning. (2017). A guide to APA referencing style (6th ed.). Retrieved on April 30, 2019 from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://student.ucol.ac.nz/library/onlineresources/Documents/APA_Guide_2017.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwibtZith8HiAhWUonEKHaifBwUQFjAAegQIAhAB&usg=AOvVaw10KdXV9EjnRdfGrPWlW_Cd

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

How to Acknowledge this Post  

The Call Info. (January 25, 2020). Referencing styles [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://research.thecallinfo.com/referencing-styles/